Making the Most of Your Money Part 3- Saving & Investing

There are five principles, which we will call building blocks, you need to know to make the most of your money.  The blocks represent the fundamental principles to keep in mind as you make day-to-day decisions and plan your financial goals.  In this post, I will review the second block, Saving, and Invest your money.  1  2

Saving and Investing

Saving is a fundamental principle. People who make a habit of saving regularly, even saving small amounts, are well on their way to success.  It is important to open a bank or credit union account, so it will be simple and easy for you to save regularly.   Then, use your savings to plan for life events and to be ready for unplanned or emergency needs.

Actions You Can Take

  • Start saving, develop a savings habit, and pay yourself first!
  • Open and keep an account at a bank or credit union that meets your needs.
  • Track your savings and investments, and monitor what you own
  • Plan for short-term and long-term goals
  • Build up emergency savings for unexpected events
  • Consult with a qualified professional on investments and other critical financial matters
  • Save for retirement, children’s education, and the other main items

Hints and Tips

  • A simple way to save is to pay yourself first.  That means each pay period before you are tempted to spend money, commit to putting some in a savings account. See if you can arrange with your bank to automatically transfer a certain amount from your paycheck or your checking account to savings every month.
  • People who keep track of their savings often end up saving more, because they have it on their minds. New phone apps are available to help people pass up purchases they do not need – you might want to try one!
  • Once you start investing your money, it is good to consult with a qualified professional about your plans. Before you purchase investments, be sure to build an emergency savings fund to cover your needs for at least three months. Keep the savings in an insured bank or credit union account that you can access if you need it.
  • Many professionals call themselves “financial planners.”  Before you hire one, ask for a description of the services offered.  A good place to check the credentials of an investment advisor is your State’s consumer protection office, the State’s Attorney General’s office, or the issuing agency for any professional licenses or certifications.

For more Federal information, guides and helpful tools about the Save and Invest principle, go to  https://www.mymoney.gov/fast/Pages/results.aspx?k=save%20and%20invest&s=General%20Information&r=principle%3D%22AQ1TYXZlICYgSW52ZXN0CXByaW5jaXBsZQECXiICIiQ%3D%22.

The next building block is “Protect.”  Don’t wait, go to the blog post now.


 

###Larry Marvin
LifeCrafter – Money $ense

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit: 9681616268_31b18bdb14_o.jpg 
  2. My Money Five, https://www.mymoney.gov/mymoneyfive/Pages/mymoneyfive.aspxThe Five Principles

Making the Most of Your Money Part 2- Earn

There are five principles, which we will call building blocks, you need to know to make the most of your money.  The blocks represent the key principles to keep in mind as you make day-to-day decisions and plan your financial goals.  In this post, I will review the first block, Earn.  1  2

Earn

The “Earn” principle is about more than the amount you of your paycheck.  This principle is about knowing the fine print and details about your paycheck, including deductions and withholdings.  To put it another way:  To make the most of what you earn, it helps to understand your pay and benefits.

Income

Income is the money that comes into your household. You use the income to pay for the things you need and want. It comes from part-time or full-time work, self-employment, and investments.  Gifts from others, tax refunds, and inheritances can also be income.

Public benefits are income

Public benefits can also serve as income, but these financial resources are not as flexible as other types of income because there are usually restrictions on how they can be spent.

Income can be regular

Regular income means it comes into your household on a schedule and in an amount that is the same almost every time. Alternatively, it can be irregular − which means you cannot predict accurately when you will receive it or how much you will receive. These ups and downs can make it hard to be sure that you will have money to pay your bills and have enough on hand for expenses like food and transportation.

Seasonal Income

Sometimes income is seasonal − you may receive it for only some months out of the year. For example, if you live in a northern state and work in the building industry, you may be very busy.

Actions You Can Take

  • Learn about the details of your paycheck, including any deductions
  • Review the taxes that are withheld, including Social Security and Medicare taxes
  • Explore and sign up for workplace benefits
  • Invest in your future – with education and training.

Hints and Tips

  • Remember, your employer has to subtract certain taxes and other items from your wages every pay period. Your take-home pay (net income) is what you receive after any taxes and deductions are subtracted from your gross earnings.
  • Usually, your deductions and withholdings include federal, state and city income taxes, Social Security and Medicare taxes, your contributions for retirement savings, and payments for health insurance provided as part of your job.
  • Be sure you take advantage of all the credits and deductions that help lower your taxes.
  • It is a good idea to sign up if your employer offers a retirement savings program. If so, you can arrange to have retirement savings automatically moved from your paycheck to a retirement account. Many employers will match part of every dollar you save this way, and you will benefit from it when you retire.

The next building block is “Save and Invest.”  Don’t wait, go to the next blog post now.


 

###Larry Marvin
LifeCrafter – Money $ense

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit:4524868908_9468b2f0eb_b.jpg
  2. My Money Five, https://www.mymoney.gov/mymoneyfive/Pages/mymoneyfive.aspxThe Five Principles

Making the Most of Your Money Part 1- Five Building Blocks

There are five principles, which we will call building blocks, you need to know to make the most of your money.  The blocks represent the key principles to keep in mind as you make day-to-day decisions and plan your financial goals.  In this post, I will give a brief description of each block,  principle, and then cover each block in more detail in future posts.  1 2

The Five Building Blocks

EARN – Make the most of what you earn by understanding your pay and benefits.  The Earn principle is about more than the amount you are paid through work.  This principle is about knowing the fine print and details about your paycheck, including deductions and withholdings.

SAVE & INVEST – It’s never too early to start saving for future goals such as a house or retirement, even by saving small amounts.  Saving is a key principle. People who make a habit of saving regularly, even saving small amounts, are well on their way to success.

PROTECT – Taking precautions about your financial situation, accumulate emergency savings, and have the right insurance. The Protect principle means taking precautions about your financial situation.

SPEND – Be sure you are getting a good value, especially with big purchases, by shopping around and comparing prices and products. The fundamental concept of Spend is: make a budget or a plan for using your money wisely. It’s helpful to set short and long-term financial goals and manage your money to meet them.

 BORROW – Borrowing money can enable some essential purchases and builds credit, but interest costs can be expensive. And, if you borrow too much, you will have a large debt to be repaid.  Sometimes it’s necessary to borrow for major purchases like an education, a car, a house, or maybe even to meet unexpected expenses.

Please go to the first principle “Earn” to begin learning these five important principles that will help you make the most of your money.


###Larry Marvin
LifeCrafter – Money $ense

 

 

 

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit:MoneyMakingBlocks.jpg
  2. My Money Five, https://www.mymoney.gov/mymoneyfive/Pages/mymoneyfive.aspxThe Five Principles

Know Your Rights When a Debt Collector Calls

When a debt collector calls, your best response is to confront the situation head-on.    1  2

Your first instinct may be to hide or ignore the situation and hope it goes away. But that can make things worse.

First, be sure the debt collector and the debt are legitimate.

Find out:

  • Who you’re talking to (get the person’s name)
  • The name of the debt collection company
  • The company’s address and phone number
  • The name of the creditor

Ask the debt collector for:

  • The amount owed
  • The name of the creditor
  • How you can dispute the debt or verify the  debt is yours

If the debt collector doesn’t tell you this information the first time it contacts you, ask for the information in writing. It is a good idea to get this written notice before you agree to pay the debt collector or try to negotiate.

Second, identify the debt

If you recognize the debt

You can contact the debt collector and work out a repayment plan that makes sense for you.

If the debt is several years old

Before making a payment or agreeing to a payment plan for a debt that is old, find out what your state’s statute of limitations is for filing a lawsuit to collect the debt. You may want to consult an attorney or the applicable law in your state.

If you’re not sure the debt is yours

Write and ask for formally written verification of the debt, including:

  • The name and address of the original creditor (if different than the current creditor)
  • How much you owe
  • Proof the debt is yours

If the debt is not yours

Write the debt collector to tell it the debt is not yours and that you do not want to be contacted about it again.

Third, keep your letters

Keep the letters you receive and make copies of the letters you send in case you need to dispute the issue later.

Harassment is illegal

The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act says debt collectors cannot harass, oppress, or abuse you or anyone else they contact.
For example, debt collectors can’t:

  • Make repeated phone calls that are intended to annoy, abuse, or harass you or any person answering the phone.
  • Use obscene or profane language.
  • Make threats of violence or harm.
  • Publish lists of people who refuse to pay their debts (this does not include reporting information to a credit reporting company).
  • Call you without telling you who they are.

If you believe a debt collector is harassing you, you can submit a complaint with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB).

###Larry Marvin
LifeCrafter – Money $ense

 

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit:32671790441_dbc0255096_o.jpg
  2. consumerfinance.gov., Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

My Money Rules to Live By “Part 3-My credit rule to live by”

About money rules to live by

Just like lane markers on a highway, your money rules to live by are guidelines that keep you moving in the right direction. You might have to speed some things up, slow down others, or change lanes from time to time, but your money rules can help you reach your financial destination. 1  2 

This worksheet is part of a series that focuses on three common rules to live by that may help you make good financial decisions in your life. The other two worksheets are on credit reports and saving. To read the research that helped inform this worksheet, and to hear about how other consumers think and feel about rules of thumb, read “Consumer Voices about Financial Rules to Live By”. Visit consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education for these resources.


A common rule of thumb

“Check your credit report at least once a year.”

Many consumers have said that they sometimes find common financial rules of thumb—like “check your credit report once a year”—hard to apply to their own circumstances. Don’t feel discouraged, you can decide on your own personal rule to live by that works for your financial situation. You may know that you can get a free credit report from each of the three nationwide credit reporting companies once every 12 months—but did you know that you can request the reports at different times to monitor your credit files throughout the year?

Instructions: Use this worksheet to create your own personal rule to live by that will help you meet your savings goals. Breaking your goals into small actionable steps will keep you from feeling overwhelmed. Writing down your goal will make you much more likely to stick to it.

My credit rule to live by

Step 1: Create a rule to live by to help you check your credit report

  • Choose an easy-to-remember a date to check your credit, like your birthday.  Or, choose up to three dates to check throughout the year.
  • Put the date(s) on your calendar ahead of time to remind you to check your credit.
  • Write down your date(s) below, sign this worksheet, and keep it where you can find it.

 

I will check my credit report:

Once a year on this date:  _________________________

Or

Throughout the year in the months of:  _____________________________

Step 2: Make a promise to yourself- and take action on your rule

I will use my unique rule to live by to help me achieve my credit goal.

_________________________________________________

(sign here)

Step 3: Take action  on your goal

  • Get a free copy of your credit report from each of the nationwide credit reporting companies. Visit annualcreditreport.com, call (877) 322-8228, or download and complete the Annual Credit Report Request Form from annualcreditreport.com and mail it to the address on the form.

Tip: Beware of other websites offering free credit reports. Some companies offer free credit reports, but you may have to buy another product or service to get it. ¨ After you get your credit report, visit consumerfinance.gov/askcfpb and click “Credit reports and scores” to learn more about your credit report, how to fix errors on your report, and more.

  • After you get your credit report, visit consumerfinance.gov/askcfpb and click “Credit reports and scores” to learn more about your credit report, how to fix errors on your report, and more.

 

###Larry Marvin

LifeCrafter- Money $ense


 

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit26787351554_d349c3d321_o.jpg
  2. https://www.consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education/.

My Money Rules to Live By “Part 2- My savings rule to live by”

About money rules to live by

Just like lane markers on a highway, your money rules to live by are guidelines that keep you moving in the right direction. You might have to speed some things up, slow down others, or change lanes from time to time, but your money rules can help you reach your financial destination. 1  2 

This worksheet is part of a series that focuses on three common rules to live by that may help you make good financial decisions in your life. The other two worksheets are on credit reports and saving. To read the research that helped inform this worksheet, and to hear about how other consumers think and feel about rules of thumb, read “Consumer Voices about Financial Rules to Live By”. Visit consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education for these resources.

 


A common rule of thumb

“Save 10 percent of your income.”

Consumers have told us that they sometimes find common financial rules of thumb—like “save 10% of your income”—hard to apply to their own circumstances. Don’t feel discouraged, you can decide on your own personal rule to live by that works for your financial situation. Putting away some money on a regular basis—even if it’s a small amount—can help you manage unexpected expenses and emergencies and reach your financial goals.

Instructions: Use this worksheet to create your own personal rule to live by that will help you meet your savings goals. Breaking your goals into small actionable steps will keep you from feeling overwhelmed. Writing down your goal will make you much more likely to stick to it.

My savings rule to live by

Step 1: Set a savings goal that works for you  

  • Decide on a goal, like saving a specific amount for a rainy day fund,  a special purchase, or a long-term goal.

Goal:  ____________________          Amount:  ____________________

  • Plan where to save your money (bank account, retirement account, etc.).  Set up direct deposit so the savings is automatically deposited into a savings account, if possible.

Account:  ______________________________

Step 2: Create a rule to live by to help you achieve your goal

  • Decide how you can cut your expenses or increase your income to save,  and how much you can save every week or month.
  • Write down your savings rule to live by amount below, sign this worksheet, and keep it where you can see it.

I will save $ _________  per  __________ (week, month, etc.)

or

I will save  __________% of my income

Step 3: Make a promise to yourself—and take action  on your rule

I will use my unique rule to live by to help me achieve my savings goal.

____________________________________________

(sign here)

 

###Larry Marvin

LifeCrafter- Money $ense

 


About the CFPB

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) is a 21st-century agency that helps consumer finance markets work by making rules more effective, by consistently and fairly enforcing those rules, and by empowering consumers to take more control over their economic lives. For more tools and resources on making financial decisions, visit consumerfinance.gov.

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit7214454962_2df8742521_o.jpg:
  2. https://www.consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education/.

Money Rules to Live By “Part 1- Spending”

About money rules to live by

Just like lane markers on a highway, your money rules to live by are guidelines that keep you moving in the right direction. You might have to speed some things up, slow down others, or change lanes from time to time, but your money rules can help you reach your financial destination. 1  2 

This worksheet is part of a series that focuses on three common rules to live by that may help you make good financial decisions in your life. The other two worksheets are on credit reports and saving. To read the research that helped inform this worksheet, and to hear about how other consumers think and feel about rules of thumb, read “Consumer Voices about Financial Rules to Live By”. Visit consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education for these resources.


A common rule of thumb

“Use the 50/20/30 rule to manage spendingapply  50 percent of your take-home pay to needs,  20 percent to savings and debt payments, and no more than 30 percent to your wants.”

Many consumers have said that they sometimes find common financial rules of thumb—like “spend no more than 30% of your take-home pay on your wants”—hard to apply to their own circumstances. Don’t feel discouraged, you can decide on your own personal rule to live by that works for your financial situation. Give yourself simple guidelines for managing your spending on today’s wants.

Instructions: Use this worksheet to create your own personal rule to live by that will help you meet your savings goals. Breaking your goals into small actionable steps will keep you from feeling overwhelmed. Writing down your goal will make you much more likely to stick to it.

My spending rule to live by

Step 1: Analyze your spending

  • Keep track of everything you spend for a month to get a sense of where your money is going.  
  • Use the chart below to determine how much of your take-home pay you are currently spending on needs and wants.

Needs

Including mortgage/rent, food, clothing, transportation, utilities, and childcare:

$ __________  or  __________%

Savings and debts

Including credit card payments, retirement savings, emergency savings:

$ __________  or  __________%

Wants

Fill in your wants:________________________________________________

$ __________  or  __________%

Total take-home pay:                              $ __________  or  100%

Step 2:  Create a rule to live by to help you manage your spending

  • Choose a weekly or monthly rule for spending on “wants”.  
  • Write down the spending on “wants” amount below, sign this worksheet, and keep it where you can see it.

I will keep my spending on “wants” to a maximum of  $ __________ per  __________  (week, month, etc.)

or

I will keep my spending on “wants” to __________% of my take-home pay per     (week, month, etc.)

Step 3: Make a promise to yourself—and take action  on your rule

I will use my unique rule to live by to help me achieve my spending goal.

______________________________________________

(sign here)

 

###Larry Marvin

LifeCrafter-Money $ense


About the CFPB

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) is a 21st-century agency that helps consumer finance markets work by making rules more effective, by consistently and fairly enforcing those rules, and by empowering consumers to take more control over their economic lives. For more tools and resources on making financial decisions, visit consumerfinance.gov.

 

  1. ©2017 Larry Marvin, Image Credit:check13226047954_40d5946dea_o.jpg
  2. https://www.consumerfinance.gov/adult-financial-education/.

Just Do It- Lesson 8

While George Clason had only seven remedies for a lean purse that were taught by his central character Arkad; I would like to add an eighth.  In lesson seven I discussed the onset of the Information Age that has given us an economy based on information computerization and the internet.  1

A computer is an essential tool

The computer can provide us with the means by which we can, and must, track and monitor our income and expenses.

You must know where your money goes

So, why should I track my expenses?  You must know where your money goes and how you spend it.  It takes discipline and hard work but if you don’t, you won’t know what habits you need to change to make your money work for you. Even your small daily expenses, cash and debit cards, can blow your budget.

Spend less than you make

To successfully grow your wealth, and even becoming a millionaire, you must be aware of the money you make and spend. “True wealth is built as you spend less than you make and to do that you need to know what you are spending. If you want to build wealth, then you need to stop wasting money.”2

Create spending plans with PC software

Numerous online budgeting software programs are available to help you set up and stick to a spending plan.  Many of the software programs are available at little or no cost to the individual with most banks providing their customers with online banking options for paying bills and monitoring expenses.  

A budget is essential to taking control of your finances

There are even free Excel spreadsheet templates that you can download to your computer, or you may want to use a notebook or an envelope budgeting system to manage your day-to-day expenses.  Here is the point, A budget is an essential step in taking control of your financial future.

A review of the eight remedies for a lean purse

It is time to do a quick review of what we have discovered from Clason’s teachings about the best remedies for a lean purse.

Lesson 1- Pay yourself first.  Take the first 10% of your earnings and place the money in a savings account.

Lesson 2- Live below your means.  Learn to live on the 90%.

Lesson 3- Make your money work for you.  Set up emergency savings to cover the unexpected expenses that will come your way.

Lesson 4- Protect your wealth from loss.  Invest in only things you know and avoid “get rich quick” schemes.

Lesson 5- Be a successful homeowner.

Lesson 6- Develop a plan for retirement to ensure your future income.  Get to know and understand the eight wonder of the world, compounding interest.

Lesson 7- Do all that you can to be healthy, improve job skills; to become wiser and smarter to increase your ability to earn a higher income.

Lesson 8- Track your wealth and stop wasting money.

So why are you waiting?

My final thought can be summed up by something Arkad said at the end of the chapter.  He said, “Go thou forth and practice these truths that thou mayest prosper and grow wealthy, as is thy right.”

Now, “Just Do It.”

###Larry Marvin

LifeCrafter Money $ense

  1.   ©2016 Larry Marvin, Image Credit 8226451812_e197931e26_o.jpg
  2.  http://moneyfor20s.about.com/bio/Miriam-Caldwell-33737.htm

Insure Future Income- Lesson 6

On the sixth day, Arkad addressed his students about their financial future.  He stresses the importance of having a  plan that will ensure future income to provide financially for old age.  In today’s terms, he challenges the students to start as early as possible to establish a retirement plan. 1  

Carving out additional money for retirement

By this time Arkad has taught us the necessity of paying ourselves first, to control our expenses and to live within our means,  how to save for emergencies and make our money work for us; and how to keep an affordable roof over our heads.  But carving out additional money for our retirement years just doesn’t seem possible in today’s financial environment.

Don’t wait for a “rainy day” to start planning

Arielle O”Shea, in a recent article she wrote for Nerdwallet.com, said, “Planning for retirement is so difficult precisely because you can’t predict the unknowns, like how long you’re going to live or what sort of medical expenses might come your way.” 2 O’Shea believes that you can provide for your retirement if you have a plan, seek wise counsel, and most importantly, start today.  Don’t wait for the proverbial “rainy day” but do it now.

There are many retirement plan options

The options available today for retirement investment plans are many.  There are 401Ks, Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and defined-benefit plans to name a few.  Remember, the sooner we can start putting money away for our retirement the better.  When we start putting money away for retirement early, we take advantage of a magical thing called ‘compounding interest‘3

For example, a 25-year-old earning an annual salary of $40,000 with an annual raise of  3% will have earned an estimated $3 million if they retire at age 65. That means that after 40 years of hard work they could be considered a millionaire.  We should have a retirement plan if we want to retire comfortably.   That is an example of compounding interest which is known as the eighth wonder of the world.

Benjamin Franklin knew the power of compound interest

History tells us that Benjamin Franklin knew all about the importance of compound interest.  When he died, he left 1,000 pounds (about $5,000 in today’s money) to a trust that named his favorite cities Philadelphia and Boston as beneficiaries of the money.  However, there was one provision that the money in the trust would not be available for at least 200 years.  The proceeds of the trust grew to over $7 million dollars, with $2 million given to Philadelphia and a whopping $5 million for Boston.

Start your plan early

In this lesson, Arkad is teaching us to put “time” to work for us by starting early to save for retirement. Time can be our retirement’s greatest friend.  Ben Franklin once said “Remember that money is of a prolific generating nature.  Money can beget money, and its offspring can beget more.”

Don’t miss the next lesson- #7

Lesson 7 implores us to Invest in ourselves by increasing our ability to earn more money. Arkad will show us that continually learning and striving to develop ourselves is the best way we can increase our earnings.  So, don’t wait.  Join us for lesson seven now.

####Larry Marvin

LifeCrafter Money $ense

 

 

  1. ©2016 Larry Marvin, Image Credit:slide8266321242_ae92ad84f7_k.jpg
  2. Arielle O’Shea is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: aoshea@nerdwallet.com. Twitter: @arioshea.
  3.  Books for debt reduction. Richest Man in Babylon, https://www.debtcutter.com.au/books-for-debt-reduction-richest-man-babylon/ (accessed August 03, 2016)

Invest In Thy Ability to Earn- Lesson 7

Women being better investors

One of Arkad’s students came to him one day and was complaining about not having enough money to repay a loan that he had outstanding.  All of the student’s income was used to pay his household bills, and he confessed that he “was a poor customer for the money lender, as he possessed no surplus earning capacity to repay the loan.” Arkad told him, “What you need, young man is to earn more coins. What doest thou to increase thy capacity to earn?”1 2

Working hard but not smart.

The student’s plight was not uncommon even today.  He worked hard, was motivated to do all that he could to provide for his family but was, as we often say today, was working hard but not smart. Clason uses Arkad in Lesson 7 to tell us that the best way we can increase our earning is by investing in ourselves.  

Seek more wisdom and knowledge.

How do we invest in ourselves in this day and time?  We must have a vigorous and definite desire to find more wisdom and knowledge and by continually exploring ways to increase our understanding and skills of our craft is crucial.   Brian Tracy, a  well-known author, motivational speaker, and personal success authority, puts it this way.

“Here are two things you can do immediately to put these ideas into action.

First, look around you at your current job and find ways to create added value every day. There’s always something more you can do.

Second, identify the kind of work you want to be doing in the future and then make a plan to develop the knowledge and skills you will require to do it well.” 3

Most people will benefit and be rewarded for making themselves more valuable at their current job.

We live in the “Information Age.”

We live in exciting times today.   The onset of the Information Age, an economy based on information computerization and the internet, has put endless volumes of information at our fingertips.

“Surfing the Net”

In an article recently published by History.org said,  “Educational opportunities were greatly enhanced because of the wealth of knowledge now placed at the fingertips of any wired individual. “SURFING THE ‘NET” became a pastime in and of itself.” 4

Strive to make yourself well-rounded

There are many things we can learn on our own and should work to make ourselves well-rounded.  Whether we learn to eat more healthy, enhance our current work skills, or learn to make more money, we must take the initiative to invest in ourselves.  Our ability to earn more money increases as our contribution to the organization increases.

###Larry Marvin
LifeCrafter – Money $ense

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1.  ©2016 Larry Marvin, Image  Credit: success-1093891_640.jpg
  2.  8 Lessons from the Richest Man in Babylon (On Wealth .., http://www.enlight8.com/8-lessons-from-the-richest-man-in-babylon/ (accessed August 03, 2016)
  3. http://www.briantracy.com/blog/personal-success/increasing-your-value/
  4.  http://www.ushistory.org/us/60d.asp  Copyright ©2008-2016 ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia founded 1942